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Two-Factor Authentication (2FA/MFA) for PostgreSQL


PostgreSQL is a database which uses techniques to provide security to site-to-site connections. Also, it secures a point-to-point connection. You can enable two-factor authentication (2FA) for your PostgreSQL with Active Directory as a user store to increase security level. When you enable 2FA, your users enter their username and password (first factor) as usual, and as a second factor they have to enter an authentication code which will be shared virtually on their device or in the form of a hardware token. This 2FA/MFA solution adds an additional security measure to prevent unwanted users getting access to your PostgreSQL .


Types of 2FA Authentication with RADIUS

The 2-factor authentication can be of two types depending on the applications.

  • Applications that support RADIUS Challenge.
  • Applications that do not support RADIUS Challenge.
  • Note: PostgreSQL do not support RADIUS challenge.


miniOrange 2FA authentication for PostgreSQL Login

miniOrange accomplishes this by acting as a RADIUS server that accepts the username/password of the user entered as a RADIUS request and validates the user against the user store as Active Directory (AD). After the first level of authentication, miniOrange prompts the user with 2-factor authentication and either grants/revokes access based on the input by the user.


MFA 2FA Two-Factor authentication for Fortinet

  1. Primary authentication initiates with the user submitting his Username and Password for PostgreSQL .
  2. User request acts as an authentication request to RADIUS Server(miniOrange).
  3. miniOrange RADIUS server passes user credentials to validate against the credentials stored in AD (Active Directory) / Database.
  4. Once the user's first level of authentication gets validated AD sends the confirmation to RADIUS Server.
  5. Now miniOrange RADIUS Server asks for a 2-factor authentication challenge to the user.
  6. Here user submits the response/code which he receives on his hardware/phone.
  7. User response is checked at miniOrange’s RADIUS Server side.
  8. On successful 2nd factor authentication the user is granted access to login.

What are different 2FA/MFA methods for PostgreSQL supported by miniOrange?

miniOrange supports multiple 2FA/MFA authentication methods for PostgreSQL secure access such as, Push Notification, Soft Token, Microssoft / Google Authenticator etc.

Authentication TypeMethodSupported
miniOrange Authenticator Soft Token
miniOrange Push Notification
Mobile Token Google Authenticator
Microsoft Authenticator
Authy Authenticator
SMSOTP Over SMS
SMS with Link
EmailOTP Over Email
Email with Link
Call VerificationOTP Over Call
Hardware Token Yubikey Hardware Token
Display Hardware Token

You can opt for any of the 2FA methods to secure your PostgreSQL . To integrate 2FA, you can enable RADIUS authentication in PostgreSQL and configure policies in miniOrange to enable or disable 2FA for users.


Connect with any External Directories


miniOrange provides user authentication from various external directories such as miniOrange Directory, Microsoft AD, Azure Active Directory/LDAP, AWS Cognito and many more.

Can't find your Directory? Contact us on idpsupport@xecurify.com



Enable Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)/MFA for PostgreSQL Client to extend security level.

1. Add the Radius Client in miniOrange

  • Login into miniOrange Admin Console.
  • Click on Customization in the left menu of the dashboard.
  • In Basic Settings, set the Organization Name as the custom_domain name.
  • Click Save. Once that is set, the branded login URL would be of the format https://<custom_domain>.xecurify.com/moas/login
  • 2FA Two-Factor authentication for PostgreSQL  : setting up branding

  • Go to Apps Click on Add Application button.
  • Add PostgreSQL  Radius Application

  • Choose RADIUS as Application type and click on Create App button.
  • 2FA Two-Factor authentication for PostgreSQL  : Create Radius Application

  • Click on PostgreSQL application tab. If you don't find your application click on Radius Client application tab.
  • 2FA Two-Factor radauthentication for PostgreSQL  : Select your Radius Client

  • Configure the below details to add Radius Client.
  • Client Name: Any name for your reference.
    Client IP: IP address of VPN server which will send Radius authentication request.
    Shared Secret: Security key.
    For Eg. "sharedsecret"
    (Keep this with you, you will need to configure same on VPN Server).
    Include Password & OTP in same Request Check this option for clients which takes password and the OTP in same request. Otherwise keep it unchecked.
    Send Groups in Response Enable this to send user groups as Vendor-Specific Group Attributes.
  • You can refer the table below for Vendor group attributes id.
    Vendor NameGroup AttributeVendor IDVendor Attribute ID
    Cisco ASA VPN26 Vendor-Specific307625
    Fortinet VPN26 Vendor-Specific123561
    Palo Alto VPN26 Vendor-Specific254615
    SonicWall VPN26 Vendor-Specific87413
    Citrix VPN26 Vendor-Specific6616
    Others11 Filter-ID
  • Configure the following Policy details for the Radius Client.
  • Group Name: Group for which the policy will apply.
    Policy Name: Any Identifier that specifies policy name.
    Login Method Login Method for the users associated with this policy.
    Enable 2-Factor Authentication Enables Second Factor during Login for users associated with this policy.
    Enable Adaptive Authentication Enables Adaptive Authentication for Login of users associated with this policy.
  • After configuring the given above details, Click on Save button.
  • Configure PostgreSQL  App for 2FA Two-Factor Authentication


  • Copy and save the Radius server IPs which will be required to configure your Radius client.
  • MFA 2FA two-factor authentication for PostgreSQL : RADIUS Server IPs

    NOTE: For On-Premise version follow the below steps before testing the connectivity.

    Only For On-Premise Version

    Open Firewall Ports.

  • In order to receive the RADIUS request, it is necessary to open UDP traffic on ports 1812 and 1813 for the machine where On-Premise IdP is deployed.
  • If the hosting machine is a Windows Machine then you can follow this document.
  • If the hosting machine is a Linux Machine then you can follow this document.

  • NOTE: If your machine is hosted on AWS, then enable the ports from the AWS panel.

2. Configure PostgreSQL Server as radius client

  • Locate and edit the pg_hba.conf configuration file and perform the following commands in command line.
    • updatedb locate pg_hba.conf vi /etc/postgresql/12/main/pg_hba.conf
  • Add the following line at the beginning of this file.
    • host all all 0.0.0.0/0 radius radiusservers=<MO Radius IP> radiussecrets=<radius password> radiusports=1812

  • Restart the PostgreSQL service using service postgresql restart
  • Connect to the PostgreSQL server using the admin account and the password set on the Active directory using psql -h 127.0.0.1 -U <username> -W <password>

3. Configure Your User Directory (Optional)

miniOrange provides user authentication from various external sources, which can be Directories (like ADFS, Microsoft Active Directory, Azure AD, OpenLDAP, Google, AWS Cognito etc), Identity Providers (like Okta, Shibboleth, Ping, OneLogin, KeyCloak), Databases (like MySQL, Maria DB, PostgreSQL) and many more. You can configure your existing directory/user store or add users in miniOrange.



  • To add your users in miniOrange there are 2 ways:
  • 1. Create User in miniOrange

    • Click on Users >> Add User.
    •  VPN 2FA : Add user in miniOrange

    • Here, fill the user details without the password and then click on the Create User button.
    •  MFA: Add user details

    • After successful user creation a notification message "An end user is added successfully" will be displayed at the top of the dashboard.
    •  Two-Factor Authentication: Add user details

    • Click on On Boarding Status tab. Check the email, with the registered e-mail id and select action Send Activation Mail with Password Reset Link from Select Action dropdown list and then click on Apply button.
    •  2FA: Select email action

    • Now, Open your email id. Open the mail you get from miniOrange and then click on the link to set your account password.
    • On the next screen, enter the password and confirm password and then click on the Single Sign-On (SSO) reset password button.
    •  Multi-Factor Authentication: Reset user password
    • Now, you can log in into miniOrange account by entering your credentials.

    2. Bulk Upload Users in miniOrange via Uploading CSV File.

    • Navigate to Users >> User List. Click on Add User button.
    •  2FA: Add users via bulk upload

    • In Bulk User Registration Download sample csv format from our console and edit this csv file according to the instructions.
    •  Two-Factor authentication: Download sample csv file

    • To bulk upload users, choose the file make sure it is in comma separated .csv file format then click on Upload.
    •  2FA : Bulk upload user

    • After uploading the csv file successfully, you will see a success message with a link.
    • Click on that link you will see list of users to send activation mail. Select users to send activation mail and click on Send Activation Mail. An activation mail will be sent to the selected users.
  • Click on User Stores >> Add User Store in the left menu of the dashboard.
  •  2FA: Configure User Store

  • Select User Store type as AD/LDAP.
  •  2FA: Select AD/LDAP as user store

    1. STORE LDAP CONFIGURATION IN MINIORANGE: Choose this option if you want to keep your configuration in miniOrange. If active directory is behind a firewall, you will need to open the firewall to allow incoming requests to your AD.
    2. STORE LDAP CONFIGURATION ON PREMISE: Choose this option if you want to keep your configuration in your premise and only allow access to AD inside premises. You will have to download and install miniOrange gateway in your premise.
    3.  Two-Factor Authentication : Select ad/ldap user store type

  • Enter LDAP Display Name and LDAP Identifier name.
  • Select Directory Type as Active Directory.
  • Enter the LDAP Server URL or IP Address against LDAP Server URL field.
  • Click on Test Connection button to verify if you have made a successful connection with your LDAP server.
  •  MFA/2FA: Configure LDAP server URL Connection

  • In Active Directory, go to the properties of user containers/OU's and search for Distinguished Name attribute.
  •  MFA: Configure user bind account domain name

  • Enter the valid Bind account Password.
  • Click on Test Bind Account Credentials button to verify your LDAP Bind credentials for LDAP connection.
  •  MFA: Check bind account credentials

  • Search Base is the location in the directory where the search for a user begins. You will get this from the same place you got your Distinguished name.
  •  2FA : Configure user search base

  • Select a suitable Search filter from the drop down menu. To use custom Search Filter select "Custom Search Filter" option and customize it accordingly.
  •  MFA/2FA : Select user search filter

  • You can also configure following options while setting up AD. Enable Activate LDAP in order to authenticate users from AD/LDAP. Click on the Save button to add user store.
  •  MFA : Activate LDAP options

    Here's the list of the attributes and what it does when we enable it. You can enable/disable accordingly.

    Attribute Description
    Activate LDAP All user authentications will be done with LDAP credentials if you Activate it
    Sync users in miniOrange Users will be created in miniOrange after authentication with LDAP
    Backup Authentication If LDAP credentials fail then user will be authenticated through miniOrange
    Allow users to change password This allows your users to change their password. It updates the new credentials in your LDAP server
    Enable administrator login On enabling this, your miniOrange Administrator login authenticates using your LDAP server
    Show IdP to users If you enable this option, this IdP will be visible to users
    Send Configured Attributes If you enable this option, then only the attributes configured below will be sent in attributes at the time of login

  • Click on Save. After this, it will show you the list of User stores. Click on Test Configuration to check whether you have enter valid details. For that, it will ask for username and password.
  •  2FA: Test AD/Ldap connection

  • On Successful connection with LDAP Server, a success message is shown.
  • Click on Test Attribute Mapping.
  •  LDAP successful connection

  • Enter a valid Username. Then, click on Test. Mapped Attributes corresponding to the user are fetched.
  •  MFA: Fetch mapped attributes for user

  • After successful Attribute Mapping Configuration, go back to the ldap configuration and enable Activate LDAP in order to authenticate users from AD/LDAP.
  • Refer our guide to setup LDAPS on windows server.

User Import and Provisioning from AD

  • Go to Settings in the Customer Admin Account.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   miniOrange dashboard

  • Enable the "Enable User Auto Registration" option and click Save.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   Enable User Auto Registration

  • (Optional) To send a welcome email to all the end users that will be imported, enable the "Enable sending Welcome Emails after user registration" option and click Save.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   Enable sending Welcome Emails after user registration

  • From the Left-Side menu of the dashboard select Provisioning.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   User Sync/Provisioning

  • In Setup Provisioning tab select Active Directory in the Select Application Drop Down.
  • Toggle the Import Users tab, click on Save button.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   User Sync Active Directory Configuration

  • On the same section, switch to Import Users section.
  • Select Active Directory from the dropdown and click on the Import Users tab, to import all the users from Active Directory to miniOrange.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   User Sync Import Operation

  • You can view all the Users you have imports by selecting Users >> User List from Left Panel.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   User List

  • All the imported users will be auto registered.
  • These groups will be helpful in adding multiple 2FA policies on the applications.

miniOrange integrates with various external user sources such as directories, identity providers, and etc.

Not able to find your IdP or Need help setting it up?


Contact us or email us at idpsupport@xecurify.com and we'll help you setting it up in no time.



4. Creating User Groups (Recommended)


  • This step involves Importing the user group from the Active Directory and Provisioning them.
  • Go to Provisioning. Switch to Setup Provisioning tab and select Active Directory from Dropdown menu.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL  : Select Active Directory (AD)

  • Select Group Provisioning/Deprovisioning tab, and toggle on Import Group option.
  • If you want to dynamically allocate users to the groups present in the miniOrange, then enable "Assign Users to groups"
  • Enter the Base DN for group sync and click Save.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL  : Switch on import Group

  • Now switch to Import Groups option and select Active Directory from which you want to import your users.
  • Finally, click on Import button. Your group will be imported.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL  : User group imported successfully

    (The Active Directory Group Provisioning (Sync) setup is done. Now, whenever a user is created or modified in LDAP server and if the Assign Users to groups is enabled, then user group attribute from the LDAP server will be automatically synced and the user group will be assigned or changed accordingly in miniOrange.)

  • Select Groups >> Manage Groups from left panel.
  • Click on the Create Group button on the top.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   Manage Groups

  • Enter an appropriate Group Name and click on Create Group.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   Create Groups

  • In this guide we have created a Group by name VPN_Group.
  • Assign various members to the group using the Assign User option associated with the group in the groups list.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   User Assign

  • Select the Users that are required to be assigned to this group. Then Select Assign to Group in Select Action Dropdown and click on Apply button.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   Assignment to Group

  • These groups will be helpful in adding multiple 2FA policies on the applications.

5. Configure 2FA/MFA for End-Users

  • To enable 2FA/MFA for PostgreSQL endusers, go to 2-Factor Authentication >> 2FA for end users.
  • Select default Two-Factor authentication method for end users. You can select particular 2FA methods, which you want to show on the end users dashboard.
  • Once Done with the settings, click on Save to configure your 2FA settings.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   Configure 2FA Panel

  • Login into your End-User Dashboard using end user login URL.
  • For Cloud Version: The Login URL for end users will be available after setting up Organisation name.
  • (You can follow these steps and use the login URL present in the Branding section.)

    MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL  Cloud and On-Premise end-users Login URL

  • For On-Premise version: The Login URL will be the same as of Admin Login URL.
  • Select Configure 2FA from left panel.
  • Browse through the Second factor options and choose an appropriate method to be used by the particular End-User during login.
  • For now, we have selected the "OTP OVER SMS"as our 2FA method. You can explore the guide to setup other 2FA methods here.
  • Click on Configure/Reconfigure "OTP OVER SMS".
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   Configure 2FA Panel

  • Enter you Phone Number along with the necessary country code and click on the SAVE below.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   Configure Second Factor-SMS(Enter Mobile Number)

  • After the Phone details are saved successfully, click on the Save button on the top bar to set this as your 2FA method.
  • Currently used method is represented by green color.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   Configure Second Factor-SMS(Enter Mobile Number)

  • To use a particular method of 2FA, we configure that method first and then select the method and click on SAVE.
  • Admin can change the second factor of the End user from the User List.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL : User list in miniOrange

  • Under Action Click on Select and then select Reset Second Factor.
  • MFA/2FA Two-Factor authentication for PostgreSQL : User list(Reset second factor)

6. Add Another Policy (Optional)

  • Here, we will configure a policy for the User Group that we created in the Step 4 and associate it with the PostgreSQL VPN Application.
  • Click on Policies tab >> App Login Policy.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   App Authentication Policy

  • Click on Add Policy tab.
  • In Application section, select the RADIUS App that we configured earlier in Step 1.
  • Select the required User Group in Group Name and enter the Policy name.
  • In this guide, we will configure a Password Only policy for "VPN_Group", so that only the VPN_Group members can access VPN Services without a Second Factor.
  • Once done with the policy settings, click on Save to Add Policy.
  • MFA/Two-Factor Authentication(2FA) for PostgreSQL   App Add Policy

7. Test 2FA for PostgreSQL Login

  • Connect to your Postgres database using either the CLI or pgAdmin.
  • Enter your username.
  • When prompted for your password, enter your password with the 2-Factor Authentication code appended to it. For e.g., if your password is 'password', and the 2FA code is 412324, then enter this when prompted for the password - 'password412324'
  • After successful authentication, you'll be connected to your Postgres database.

Further References

Our Other Identity & Access Management Products